Updated: Dec 22, 2021
It was not very long ago when outdoor flocks in Western Canada could live long and never get sick beyond the occasional cough in the winter. But serious diseases have become a problem in the last 50 years. The number of birds being kept has grown hugely, and flocks are closer together. Biosecurity is often poor, with people buying and selling birds that may be carrying a disease. And perhaps the worst culprit: people who are reluctant to cull or even quarantine sick birds. This situation is a bonanza for germs. Once a disease gets introduced it’s here to stay, and we will likely see more and more of it.
In my opinion, the best way to protect our birds from disease is to vaccinate them. There are excellent, non-shedding vaccines now that can be administered to day old chicks. We can’t protect them from everything, but the vaccine we have chosen for the hatchery since 2017 gives them protection from the 2 worst and most common diseases in this area: Marek’s Disease and Infectious Laryngotracheitis (ILT).
Let’s talk about Marek’s Disease. It is a highly contagious neoplastic disease caused by a herpes virus. The virus is spread in dander from feather follicles which can stay suspended in the air for days and travel many miles. After inhaling this dust, microscopic lesions are present after one to two weeks, and gross lesions are present after three to four weeks. Chicks may go lame or get hugely enlarged livers before maturity, although some birds live a few years with the infection. Infected birds are carriers and shedders for life. Marek’s disease is the most common chicken disease in Canada.
ILT looks like a bad cold until your birds start dying. It is an acute, highly contagious, herpes virus infection characterized by severe trouble breathing, coughing, a swollen head, weepy eyes and a drop in egg laying. The 50 to 80% of the birds that recover remain carriers for life and become a source of infection for susceptible birds. The latent virus can be reactivated every time the bird is stressed. ILT is a reportable disease in Canada and you may be required to cull all your poultry if your flock gets it.
The vaccine we use at TNHH is Vectormune LT. It is stored in liquid nitrogen, so there is no mercury in it. A single 0.2ml shot at the hatchery confers lifetime immunity to both Marek’s and ILT. The vaccinated birds cannot spread either disease to other birds.
If you are a confirmed anti-vaccer, no worries, we will not vaccinate your chicks. If you are uncertain about vaccinating, here are some responses to frequently raised objections:
* We’re organic - No problem, vaccines are approved by all the organic certifiers.
* Vaccination is stressful - Not as stressful as suffering with Marek’s or ILT
* We’re breeding for natural resistance - No you are not. Doing that effectively would be a very advanced genetics project, which requires far bigger flocks than you could possibly have.
* We can’t because we’re going to use medicated feed - Medicated feed only affects the Cocci parasite, it has no effect on viruses.
* We don’t have those diseases here - You may not, yet, but even perfectly isolated flocks will be exposed sooner or later, often by wild birds.
* It’s not worth the cost - One healthy young hen is worth the cost of 100 vaccinations.
Like small pox, Marek’s and ILT could be wiped out if everyone vaccinated their chicks. I encourage you to do your part!